Photograph of Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack Mountains, New York. The photo shows a triangular mountain peak lightly dusted with snow.

Additional Resources for the Earth Science of the Northeastern United States

Page snapshot: Lists of supplemental and teaching resources for the Earth science of the northeastern United States, sorted by topic.

Topics covered on this page: General; Geologic history; Rocks; Fossils; Topography; Energy; Climate; Earth hazards.

Credits: Most of the resources from this page come from the The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Northeastern U.S. by J. E. Ansley (published in 2000 by the Paleontological Research Institution, reprinted in 2016; currently out of print). The book was adapted for the web by Elizabeth J. Hermsen and Jonathan R. Hendricks in 2022.

Updates: Page last updated October 23, 2023.

Image above: Whiteface Mountain, Adirondack Mountains, New York. Photo by Mwanner (Wikimedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, image cropped and resized).

Disclaimer: Links to commercial websites (internet retailers, rock and mineral shops, informational websites that include a shop, etc.) do not constitute endorsement of their products.


Books, articles, and reports

Baldwin, B. 1982. Geology of Vermont. Earth Science, fall 1982, pp. 10-14. PDF:

Barnes, J. H., and W. D. Sevon. 2002. The geological story of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Educational Series 4, 46 pp.

Bell, M. 1985. The face of Connecticut: People, geology and the land. The State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 110, Hartford, Connecticut, 196 pp.

Loiselle, M., and W. B. Thompson. 1987. The geology of Maine. Rocks & Minerals 62: 386–392.

Plank, M. O. and W. S. Schenck. 1998. Delaware Piedmont Geology. Delaware Geological Survey, University of Delaware, Special Publication 20, 64 pp. PDF:

Reed, J. C., Jr., R. S. Sigafoos, and G. W. Fisher. 1980. The geologic story of Great Falls and the Potomac River Gorge. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1471, 75 pp. PDF:

Schmidt, M. F. 1993. Maryland's geology. Tidewaters Publishers, Centerville, Maryland, 164 pp.

Schuberth, C. J. 1968. The geology of New York City and environs. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, 304 pp.

Shultz, C. H., ed. 1999. The Geology of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Pittsburg Geological Society, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 888 pp.

Subitzkey, S., ed. 1969. Geology of selected areas in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Titus, R., and J. Titus. 2016. The Catskills: A geological guide, expanded edition. Purple Mountain Press, Fleshmanns, New York, 202 pp.

Wolfe, P. E. 1977. Geology and landscape of New Jersey. Crane Russak, New York, 351 pp.

Field trip guides

Wright, S. F., ed. 1999. Guidebook to field trips in Vermont and adjacent regions of New Hampshire and New York. New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, 91st annual meeting, Burlington, Vermont, 377 pp. PDF:

Roy, D. C., ed. 1987. Northeastern Section of the Geological Society of America. Centennial Field Guide 5. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Volkert, R., and R. Witte. Geologic history and virtual field trip of the New Jersey Highlands. New Jersey Geological Survey, 100 slides. PDF:


Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey:

The Delaware Geological Survey:

Delaware Valley Earth Science Society:

The Geology of Delaware (The Delaware Geological Survey):

Geological Society of New Hampshire:

Geology and geography of New York Bight beaches (Phil Stoffer and Paula Messina):

Geology of the New York City Region (Phil Stoffer, 1998, last updated 2019):

Maine Geological Survey:

Maryland Geological Survey:

The Massachusetts Geological Survey:

New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services:

New Hampshire Geology:

New Jersey Division of Water Supply and Geoscience:

New York State Geological Association:

Pennsylvanian Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Bureau of Geological Survey:

Rhode Island Geological Survey:

Vermont Geological Survey:


Activities and resources for Earth Science teachers (Maine Geological Survey):

Geologic history

Books, articles, and reports

Bain, G. W., and H. A. Meyerhoff. 1976. The flow of time in the Connecticut Valley. Connecticut Valley History Museum, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Hatcher, R. D., Jr., W. A. Thomas, and G. W. Viele, eds.. 1989. The Appalachian-Ouachita Orogen in the United States. The Geology of America vol. F-2. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, 767 pp. [Technical.]

McPhee, J. 1983. In suspect terrain. Farrar, Straus, Giroux, New York, New York.

Rodgers, J. 1971. The Taconic Orogeny. GSA Bulletin 82(5): 1141–1178.[1141:TTO]2.0.CO;2

Tesmer, L. H., ed. 1981.Colossal cataract: The geological history of Niagara Falls. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.

Zen, E.-a., ed. 1968. Studies of Appalachian Geology: Northern and maritime. Interscience Publishers, New York, 475 pp.


Newark Basin and Connecticut River Basin (Phil Stoffer and Paula Messina):


Books, articles, and reports

Books, articles, and reports from the Paleontological Research Institution

Vern Straeten, C. A., D. J. Over, and D. Woodrow (eds.). 2023. Devonian of New York, vols. 1-3. Bulletins of American Paleontology, vols. 403-408.

Other books, articles, and reports

Caldwell, D. W. 1998. Roadside geology of Maine. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 317 pp.

Cristofono, P. 2020. Rockhounding New England: A guide to 100 of the region's best rockhounding sites, 2nd ed. Falcon Guides, 344 pp. 

Dooley, J. H., and D. P. Harper. 1996 (revised 1998, 2005). New Jersey rocks and sediments. New Jersey Geological Survey, 22 pp. PDF:

Harper, D. P. 2013. Roadside geology of New Jersey. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 360 pp.

Isachsen, Y. W., E. Landings, J. M. Lauber, L. V. Rickard, and W. B. Rogers, eds. 2000. Geology of New York, a simplified account, 2nd. ed. New York State Geological Survey, New York State Museum, Cultural Education Center, Albany, New York, 294 pp.

Means, J. 2015. Roadside geology of Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 346 pp.

Pallis, T. 2012. New Jersey brownstone. New Jersey Geological and Water Survey Information Circular, Trenton, New Jersey, 4 pp. PDF:

Schmidt, M. E., Jr. 1993. Maryland's geology. Tidewaters Publishers, Centerville, Maryland.

Skehan, J. W. 2001. Roadside geology of Massachusetts. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 379 pp.

Skehan, J. W. 2008. Roadside geology of Connecticut and Rhode Island. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 304 pp.

Van Diver, B. B. 1985. Roadside geology of New York. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 411 pp.

Van Diver, B. B. 1987. Roadside geology of Vermont and New Hampshire. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 230 pp.

Van Diver, B. B. 2014. Roadside geology of Pennsylvania, reprinted ed. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 362 pp.

Wiest, L. A. 2014. Ichonology of the marine K-Pg interval: Endobenthic response to a large-scale environmental disturbance. M.S. Thesis, Temple University.


Vermont State rocks (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation):


AAPG. 1976. Northeastern region geological highway map. [Includes Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.]


General/multiple states

Books, articles, and reports

Edelstein, K. 1999. Lasting impressions: A guide to understanding fossils in the northeastern United States. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Miranda, A. 2019. The Delaware Water Gap: A window into Earth's early oceans. Park Paleontology News 11(2), Fall 2019.

Weems, R. E. 2019. Evidence for bipedal prosauropods as the likely Eubrontes track-makers. Ichnos 26: 187-215.

Weshampel, D. B., and L. Young. 1996. Dinosaurs of the East Coast. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.


The Connecticut River Valley (by Sajirat Palakarn, The Joe Webb Peoples Fossil Collection, Wesleyan University):


Books, articles, and reports

Rogers, O. 2022. Discovered dinosaur tracks re-route highway and lead to state park., 23 August 2022.


Dinosaur State Park (The Friends of Dinosaur Park and Arboretum):

Dinosaur State Park (Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, state of Connecticut):


Books, articles, and reports

Lauginiger, E. M. 1988. Cretaceous fossils from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal: A guide for students and collectors. Delaware Geological Survey Special Publication 18, 75 pp. PDF:

Lauginiger, E. M., and E. F. Hartstein. 1983. A guide to fossil sharks, skates, and rays from the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal area, Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Open File Report 21, 63 pp. PDF:

Pickett, T. E. 1972. Guide to common Cretaceous fossils of Delaware. Delaware Geological Survey Report of Investigations 21, 28 pp. PDF:


Fossils (The Delaware Geological Survey):


Books, articles, and reports

Churchill-Dickson, L. 2007. Maine's fossil record: The Paleozoic. Maine Geological Survey, Department of Conservation, 500 pp.

Maine Geological Survey. 2009. Virtual tour of Maine's fossils. Circular VT-3, Maine Geological Publications 576, 57 pp. PDF:


Maine fossils: remains of life from another time and place (Maine Geological Survey):


Books, articles, and reports

Glaser, J. D. 1979. Collecting fossils in Maryland. Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Geological Survey, 79 pp.

Godfrey, S. J., ed. 2018. The geology and vertebrate paleontology of Calvert Cliffs, Maryland, USA. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 100. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, D.C., 274 pp. [Technical.] PDF: 

Kent, B. W. 1994. Fossil sharks of the Chesapeake Bay Region. Egan Rees & Boyer, Inc., Columbia, Maryland.

Kranz, P. M. 1989. Dinosaurs in Maryland. Department of Natural Resources, Maryland Geological Survey, Educational Series 6, 34 pp.

Kranz, P. M. 1998. Mostly dinosaurs: A review of the vertebrates of the Potomac Group (Aptian Arundel Formation), USA. Pp. 235-238 in S. G. Lucas, J. I. Kirkland, and J. W. Estep (eds.), Lower and Middle Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 14.

Standford, M. G. L., C. Tucker, S. Godfrey, and S. M. Stanford. 2018. A diverse mammal-dominated, footprint assemblage from wetland deposits in the Lower Cretaceous of Maryland. Scientific Reports 8: 741. [Technical.]

Strain, D. 2013. The Chesapeake's excellent fossils. Chesapeake Quarterly 12(4), December 2013.


Dinosaur Park (Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission):

Fossil identification (Calvert Marine Museum):

Fossils (Maryland Geological Survey):


Books, articles, and reports

McBrien, M. A. 1976. Massachusetts fossils. Rocks & Minerals 51: 234–236.

Vaccaro, A. 2015. Millions of years ago, western Massachusetts was a Jurassic world., June 15, 2015.

Warner, F.L. 1937. On a New England Campus. The University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Includes Mignon Talbot's recollections of finding the Massachusetts state dinosaur, Podokesaurus holyokensis.]


Web resources from the Paleontological Research Institution:

Mignon Talbot (Daring to Dig online exhibit):

Other web resources:

Dinosaur Footprints (Holyoke):

Impressions from a lost world: The discovery of dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River Valley of New England (online exhibit, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association):

New Jersey

Books, articles, and reports

Berberabe, J. 2021. Jersey's paleonotological history: the story of Hadrosaurus foulkiiNew Jersey Digest, 20 August 2021.

Hagge, P. 2018. Jersey's fossil history shows that giants lived here. New Jersey Monthly, November 16, 2018.

Choi, C. Q. 2009. Digging up valuable fossils in suburban New Jersey. Scientific American, September 1, 2009.

Chung, K. 2016. Behind a shopping center in New Jersey, signs of a mass extinction. The New York Times, 4 January 2016.

Lyons-Weiler, Z. 2021. Jurassic days: Icarosaurus. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Blog, 30 July 2021.

Yoon, C. K. 1999. In tiny fossils, botanists see flowery world; empty lot yields trove of ancient plants. The New York Times, 21 December 1999.


Fossils of New Jersey (John Whitley):

Jean & Ric Edelman Fossil Park & Museum of Rowan University:

Poricy Park Fossil Beds (Poricy Park Conservancy):

New York

Books, articles, and reports

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution:

Linseley, D. M. 1994. Devonian Paleontology of New York. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York.

Other books, articles, and reports:

Brannen, P. 2018. Glimpses of a mass extinction in modern-day western New York. The New Yorker, July 4, 2018.

Heubusch, C.A. no date. Common Fossils of Western New York. Buffalo Museum of Science.


Web resources from the Paleontological Research Institution:

Historical paleontologists working on New York fossils:

New York Rocks! Ancient life of the Empire State (online exhibit):

Virtual Collection: Devonian Fossils of New York:

Other web resources:

Gilboa Museum and Juried History Center (Gilboa, New York):

New York Paleontological Society:

Oldest known fossil forest discovered in Town of Cairo, New York (Town of Cairo, New York):

Paleontology and beach fossils of the New York Bight (Phil Stoffer and Paula Messina):

Penn Dixie Fossil Park & Nature Reserve:

Rochester Academy of Science Fossil Section:

Wooster's Fossils of the Week: Eurypterids (Late Silurian of New York) (by Mark A. Wilson, Wooster Geologists):


Books, articles, and reports

Harper, J. A., D. M. Hoskins, and J. D. Inners. 1983. Fossil collecting in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Hoskins, D. M. 1999. Common fossils of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Educational Series 2, 18 pp. PDF:

Lamborn, R. 1978. The paleontology of western Pennsylvania. Rocks & Minerals 53: 99–103.


Fossil pit (Montour Preserve):

Identifying and collecting [includes downloads of illustrations of Pennsylvania's fossils from various time periods] (Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources):

Port Kennedy Bone Cave (by Justin Tweet, Valley Forge National Historical Park):

Rhode Island

Books, articles, and reports

Fay, L. P. 1986. Fossils of Rhode Island. Rocks & Minerals 61(5): 278–280.


Books, articles, and reports

Olson, A. 2021. Did woolly mammoths overlap with first humans in New England? Dartmouth, 4 March, 2021. 

Teresi, D. 2007. Paleozoic Vermont. Smithsonian Magazine, January 2007.


Chazy Reef at Isle LaMotte (Department of Environmental Conservation, Vermont):

Mineral resources


Grandy, J. W. 1982. Guide to eastern rocks and minerals. Hancock House Publishers, Ltd., British Columbia, Canada.

Jensen, D. E. 1978. Minerals of New York State. Ward Press, Rochester, New York.

King, V. T., ed. 2000. Mineralogy of Maine, vol. 2: Mining history, gems, and geology. Maine Geological Survey, 524 pp.

King, V. T., and E. E. Foord, eds. 1994. Mineraology of Maine, vol. 1: Descriptive mineralogy. Maine Geological Survey, 418 pp. 

Miller, C. E. 1972. Minerals of Rhode Island. University of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island.

Thompson, W. B., D. L. Joyner, R. G. Woodman, and V. T. King. 1998. A collector's guide to Maine mineral localities, 3rd ed. Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine.


Franklin Mineral Museum (Franklin, New Jersey):

Mineral and energy resources (Maryland Geological Survey):

Mineral resources (The Delaware Geological Survey):

New York State Academy of Mineralogy:

Sterling Hill Mining Museum (Ogdensburg, New Jersey):


Books, articles, and reports

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution

Bloom, A. L. 2018. Gorges history: landscapes and geology of the Finger Lakes region. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, 214 pp.

Other books, articles, and reports

Hughes, T., H. W. Boms, Jr., J. L. Fastook, J. S. Kite, M. R. Hyland, and T. V. Lowell. 1985. Models of glacial reconstruction and deglaciation applied to Maritime Canada and New England. In: H. W. Boms, Jr., P. LaSalle, and W. B. Thompson, Late Pleistocene history of northeastern New England and adjacent Quebec. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Oldale, R. N. 1992. Cape Cod and islands: The geologic story. Parnassus Imprints, East Orleans, Massachusetts, 208 pp.

Thompson, W. B. 2014. Maine geologic facts and localities: Maine's eskers. Circular GFL-199, Maine Geological Survey Publications 490, 17 pp. PDF:

Sevon, W. D., G. M. Fleeger, and V. C. Shepps. 1999. Pennsylvania and the Ice Age. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Educational Series 6, 32 pp. 

von Engeln, O. D. 1988. The Finger Lakes region: Its origin and nature, revised ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 208 pp.


Glacial lakes, central Vermont (Department of Environmental Conservation, Vermont):

Shaping Cape Cod (NASA Earth Observatory):


Books, articles, and reports

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution:

Duggan-Haas, D., R. M. Ross, and W. D. Allmon. 2013. The science beneath the surface: A very short guide to the Marcellus Shale. Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication 43, Ithaca, NY, 252 pp. PDF:

Other books, articles, and reports:

Blakemore, E. 2019. This mine fire has been burning for over 50 years. History, April 26, 2019.

Edmunds, W. E. 2002. Coal in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Educational Series 7, 28 pp. PDF:


Anthracite coal mining region of northeastern Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania State University libraries):

Centralia Mine Fire Resources (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection):

Coal mining in Pennsylvania: PA mining history (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection):

Mineral and energy resources (Maryland Geological Survey):

Pittston in the age of coal and steam (City of Pittston, Pennsylvania):

Short history of the evolution of Coal Hill (Mount Washington) (Brookline Connection by Clint Burton):



Northeast Regional Climate Center: . This website includes resources such as:

U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit - Northeast:

4th National Climate Assessment - Northeast:

New York State Climate Impacts Assessment:

East Coast Winter Storms:

The Climate Explorer:

Earth hazards

General Earth hazards


Earthquakes, Sinkholes and other Geohazards (Maryland Geological Survey):

Geologic hazards of Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Department of Conservation & Natural Resources):

Geology and hazards (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation):

Hazards (Maine Geological Survey):

Hazard reports, presentations and publications (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation):

Natural hazards (The Delaware Geological Survey):

The Northeast States Emergency Consortium:

Planning for all hazards (Connecticut State Division of Emergency Management):


Books, articles, and reports

Domroski, D. R., Jr. 1998, revised 2005. Earthquake risk in New Jersey. New Jersey Geological Survey, 14 pp.

Gale, M., and G. Springston. 1998. Earthquakes in Vermont. Vermont Geological Survey Educational Leaflet No. 1. PDF:

Harmon, K. 2011. Top 10 biggest East Coast quakes on record. Scientific American, 23 August 2011.

Kafka, A. L. 2000. Public misconceptions about faults and earthquakes in the eastern United States: Is it our own fault? Seismological Letters 71(3): 311–312.

Reger, J. P. 1987. Earthquakes and Maryland. Maryland Geological Survey, Baltimore, Maryland.

Sharnberger, C. K. 2003. Earthquake hazard in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey Educational Series 10. 


New England Seismic Network:

The great 1727 earthquake and the wrath of God (New England Historical Society):

Karst & sinkholes

Kochanov, W. E. 1999. Sinkholes in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Geological Survey Educational Series 11. PDF:


Intense storms in the Northeast cause catastrophic flooding (National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service): 

Johnstown Flood National Memorial (Pennsylvania):

Extreme weather

Books, articles, and reports

Carson, R. 2023. 30 years ago, a mammoth blizzard pummeled MA and the Northeast. WSBS, 14 March 2023.

Kilgannon, C., L. Fadulu, H. Meko, and S. M. Nir. 2022. How the Buffalo blizzard became so deadly. The New York Times, 29 December 2022.

McFadden, R. D. 1991. Nameless storm swamps the shoreline. The New York Times, 1 November 1991.

NOAA. 2023. Costliest U.S. tropical cyclones.

Plan NYC. 2013. A stronger, more resilient New York. The City of New York.


Hurricane Sandy (National Weather Service):

Nor'easter (National Geographic Education):

The Perfect Storm (1991) (National Park Service):

What is a Nor'easter? (National Weather Service):