Photograph of vent cones at Halema'uma'u Crater on Kilauea, Hawaii, in 2022. The photo shows a cluster of three cone-shaped structure and a single cone-shaped structure to the left, all of them venting smoke. Red-hot lava can be glimpsed in the cluster of structures at the right. The vent cones sit on a bed of solid lava rock.

Additional Resources for the Earth Science of Hawaiʻi

Page snapshot: Lists of supplemental and teaching resources for the geology of Hawai'i, sorted by topic.

Topics covered on this page: General resources; Rocks; Fossils; Mineral resources; Glaciers; Energy; Climate; Earth hazards.

Credits: Most of the resources from this page come from the The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Western US, edited by Mark D. Lucas, Robert M. Ross, and Andrielle N. Swaby (published in 2014 by the Paleontological Research Institution; currently out of print). The book was adapted for the web by Elizabeth J. Hermsen and Jonathan R. Hendricks in 2022.

Updates: Page last updated May 10, 2022.

Image above: West vent cone complex in Halema'uma'u Crater on Kīlauea, Hawai'i, April 15, 2022. Photo by J.M. Chang, United States Geological Survey (public domain).

Disclaimer: Links to commercial websites (internet retailers, rock and mineral shops, informational websites that include a shop, etc.) do not constitute endorsement of their products.

General resources

MacDonald, G. A., and A. Abbott. 1970. Volcanoes in the sea: The geology of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press.


Oskin, B. 2013. Photo glossary: Hawaii's amazing volcanic rocks. LiveScience, May 14, 2013.


Burney, D. A., H. F. James, L. P. Burney, S. L. Olson, W. Kikuchi, W. L. Wagner, M. Burney, D. McCloskey, D. Kikuchi, F. V. Grady, R. Gage, and R. Nishek. 2001. Fossil evidence for a diverse biota from Kaua`i and its transformation since human arrival. Ecological Monographs 71: 615–641. [Technical] PDF (Smithsonian Research Online):

Fletcher, C. H., C. Bochicchio, C. L. Conger, M. Engels, E. Feirstein, E. Grossman, R. Grigg, J. N. Harney, J. B. Rooney, C. E. Sherman, S. Vitousek, K. Rubin, & C. V. Murray-Wallace. 2008. Geology of Hawaii reefs. Pp. 435–488, in: B. M. Riegl & R. E. Dodge (eds.), Coral reefs of the U.S.A. Springer, London, 803 pp. [Technical] 

Kohn, A. J. 1980. Conus kahiko, a new Pleistocene gastropod from Oahu, Hawaii. Journal of Paleontology 54: 534–541. [Technical]

Mineral resources

Books, articles, and reports

Heinen De Carlo, E., and B. Swoboda. 2017. Mineral localities in Hawaii. Rocks & Minerals 92: 218–237.

Voynick, S. 2018. Rock science: The 'gemstones' of Kilauea. Rock & Gem, September 12, 2018.


Hui Pōhaku'o Hawai'i/Rock and Mineral Society of Hawai'i (information on minerals in Hawai'i):

The Mineral Industry of Hawaii (National Mineral Information Center, United States Geological Survey):


Hawaii Mineral Collecting. Presentation by Eric Heinen De Carlo to the Friends of Mineralogy Virginia Chapter (via YouTube).


Ancient Hawaiian Glaciers Reveal Clues to Global Climate Impacts (Oregon State University Newsroom, August 4, 2010):


Hawaii State Energy Office:


Books, articles, and reports

2014. Climate change impacts in Hawai'i. University of Hawai'i at Mānoa Sea Grant College Program. PDF:

Burt, C. C. 2012. New wettest location for the U.S.A. discovered? Wunderground May 15, 2012.

Giambelluca, T. W., Q. Chen, A. G. Frazier, J. P. Price, Y.-L. Chen, P.-S. Chu, J. K. Eischeid, and D. M. Delparte. 2013. Online rainfall atlas of Hawai'i. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94: 313–316.


Climate Change Impacts: Climate impacts in the U.S. islands (Environmental Protection Agency, archived website from 2017):

State of Hawaii Climate Change Portal:

Earth hazards


Books, articles, and reports

US Geological Survey. 1997. Volcanic and seismic hazards on the Island of Hawaii, second revised edition. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. PDF:

USGS Communications and Publishing. 2021. New USGS model shows earthquakes hazard probability for Hawaiian Islands. United States Geological Survey, December 22, 2021.


About earthquakes in Hawaii (Hawaii Volcano Observatory, United States Geological Survey):


Books, articles, and reports

Swanson, D., D. Fiske, T. Rose, B. Houghton, and M. Mastin. 2011. Kīlauea—an explosive volcano in Hawai'i. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2011-3064. PDF:

Tilling, R. I., C. Heliker, and D. A. Swanson. 2010. Eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes; past, present, and future. US Geological Survey General Information Product 117, 63 pp.

US Geological Survey. 1997. Volcanic and seismic hazards on the Island of Hawaii, second revised edition. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. PDF:


Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park:

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (United States Geological Survey):