Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science
Welcome to our free, open-access Earth science textbook. Over the next several years, the Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science will grow to cover most Earth science topics. Initial subjects covered include big ideas, minerals, fossils, climate, and climate change (links below). "Quick Introductions" provide brief overviews of that will be expanded upon in later Digital Encyclopedia chapters.
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Minerals, Rocks, Plate Tectonics, and Earth Hazards
Information about the official state fossil, rock, mineral, gem, and highest and lowest point of elevation in each U.S. state, along with suggestions for places to visit in person.
Fossils, Paleontology, and Evolution
Note: Some of the links below lead to the Digital Atlas of Ancient Life, which is also managed and operated by the Paleontological Research Institution.
Taxonomic Groups: Porifera (Sponges) | Scleractinian Corals | Rugose Corals | Tabulate Corals | Brachiopoda | Bryozoa | Gastropoda | Cephalopoda | Echinodermata | Chordata | Embryophytes (Land Plants)
Over 500 interactive 3D models of fossil specimens from our collections and museum exhibits.
Overviews of the fossils of each major region of the United States (in development).
Climate, Climate Change, and Energy
Topics: Why we need to adapt and build resilience | The costs and benefits of adaptation | Types of adaptation strategies | Adaptation to different climate hazards | Climate justice and equity | Summary and additional resources | Activities