Photo showing Niobrara Chalk bluffs in western Kansas. The bluff are made of soft gray-and-beige rock. Near the ground, the chalk shows horizontal bedding. The tops of the bluffs are more weathered and irregular in appearance.

Additional Resources for the Earth Science of the South-central United States

Page snapshot: Lists of supplemental and teaching resources for the geology of the south-central U.S., sorted by topic.


Topics covered on this page: Geologic history; Rocks; Fossils; Topography; Mineral resources; Glaciers; Energy; Climate; Earth hazards.

Credits: Most of the resources from this page come from the The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the South Central US, edited by Mark D. Lucas, Robert M. Ross, and Andrielle N. Swaby (published in 2015 by the Paleontological Research Institution; currently out of print). The book was adapted for the web by Elizabeth J. Hermsen and Jonathan R. Hendricks in 2022.

Updates: Page last updated March 1, 2022.

Image above: Late Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk bluffs, Gove County, Kansas, 2013. Photo by James St. John (flickr, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license, image cropped and resized).

Disclaimer: Links to commercial websites (internet retailers, rock and mineral shops, informational websites that include a shop, etc.) do not constitute endorsement of their products.

Geologic history

Books, articles, and reports

Beveridge, T. R. 1978. An introduction to the geologic history of Missouri. Missouri Geological Survey and Water Resources Miscellaneous Publication 6, 8 pp.

Blakey, R. C., and W. D. Ranney (eds.). 2018. Ancient landscapes of western North America: A geologic history with paleogeographic maps. Springer Nature, Switzerland. 

Dutch, S. 2009. Plate tectonics and the evolution of Central America and the Caribbean. (A series of paleogeographic maps that include the Gulf Coast area.) Archived page: http://web.archive.org/web/20170420214344/http://www.uwgb.edu/DutchS/CostaRica2008/CR-PT.HTM

Guccione, M. J. 1993. Geologic history of Arkansas through time and space. University of Arkansas. PDF: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/docs/pdf/education/geologic-history-of-arkansas-through-time-and-space-gray-scale.pdf

Johnson, J. 2008. Geologic history of Oklahoma. Pp. 3-8 (PDF: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_2-8geol.pdf) in Earth sciences and mineral resources of Oklahoma, Johnson, K. S., and K. V. Luza (eds.). Oklahoma Geological Survey, Educational Publication 9, 22 pp. PDF of entire document: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_All.pdf

Merriam, D. F. 1963. The geologic history of Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin 162, 317 pp. Web version, based in 1998 reprint: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/162/

Trimble, D. E. 1980. The geologic story of the Great Plains: a nontechnical description of the origin and evolution of the landscape of the Great Plains. US Geological Survey Bulletin 1493. PDF: https://doi.org/10.3133/b1493 (Also available on Project Gutenburg in multiple formats: https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/63396)

Unklesbay, A. G., and J. G. Vineyard. 1992. Missouri geology: Three billion years of volcanoes, seas, sediments, and erosion. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 189 pp.

Urbanczyk, K., D. Rohr, and J. C. White. 2001. Geologic history of West Texas. Pp. 17–25, in: R. E. Mace, W. F. Mullican, & E. S. Angle (eds.), Aquifers of West Texas, Texas Water Development Board Report 356. PDF: http://www.twdb.texas.gov/publications/reports/numbered_reports/doc/r356/chapter2_3.pdf

Van Arsdale, R. B., & R. T. Cox. 2007. The Mississippi’s curious origins. Scientific American, 296(1): 76–82, 82B. Read on the web (paywalled): https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-mississippis-curious/

Maps

The following maps are available from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG):

AAPG. 1966 (updated 2017). Mid-Continent region geological highway map. AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (Covers Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.) 

AAPG. 1995. Southeastern Region Geological Highway Map. AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (Covers Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi.)

AAPG. 2009 (updated 2015). Texas geological highway map. AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Rocks

Books, articles, and reports

2019. A Collection of Missouri Rocks and Minerals. Missouri Geological Survey. Missouri Department of Natural Resources PUB2817, 20 pp. PDF: https://dnr.mo.gov/document-search/collection-missouri-rocks-minerals-pub2817

Chandler, A. 2015. Arkansas geology: Bluffs, crevices, pedestals, and fossils. Arkansas Geological Survey Educational Workshop Series 08, 51 pp. PDF: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/docs/pdf/publication/educational-workshops/EWS-08.pdf

Gentile, R. J. 2015. Rocks and fossils of the central United States, with special emphasis on the greater Kansas City area. 2nd edition. University of Kansas, Department of Geology & Paleontological Institute, Special Publication 8, 221 pp.

Hattin, D. E. 1982. Stratigraphy and depositional environment of Smoky Hill Chalk Member, Niobrara Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of the type area, western Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 225. Web and PDF versions: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/225/index.html

Tolsted, L. L. and A. Swineford. 1986 (revised by R. Buchanan, 1998). Kansas rocks and minerals. Kansas Geological Survey Educational Series 2, 60 pp. Web version and PDF: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/ED2/index.html

Websites

Arkansas Novaculite: A virtual comparative collection (2012–2016, Arkansas Archeological Survey): http://archeology.uark.edu/novaculite/index.html

GeoKansas: Rocks in Kansas (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/rocks-kansas

Fossils

General/multiple states

Books, articles, and reports

Bottjer, D. J. 2002. Smoky Hill Chalk: spectacular Cretaceous marine fauna. Pp. 352–364, in: Exceptional Fossil Preservation. A unique view on the evolution of marine life, D. J. Bottjer, W. Etter, J. W. Hagadorn, and C. M. Tang (eds.), Columbia University Press, New York.

Gentile, R. J. 2015. Rocks and fossils of the Central United States, with special emphasis on the greater Kansas City area, 2nd ed. University of Kansas, Department of Geology & Paleontological Institute, Special Publication 8, 221 pp.

Websites

Websites from the Paleontological Research Institution & partners:

Cretaceous Atlas of Ancient Life, Western Interior Seaway (Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming): https://www.cretaceousatlas.org/geology/

Pennsylvanian Atlas of Ancient Life, Midcontinent United States (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas): https://pennsylvanianatlas.org/

Arkansas

Books, articles, and reports

Chandler, A. 2015. Arkansas geology: Bluffs, crevices, pedestals, and fossils. Arkansas Geological Survey Educational Workshop Series 08, 51 pp. PDF: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/docs/pdf/publication/educational-workshops/EWS-08.pdf

Freeman, T. 1966 (reprinted 1987). Fossils of Arkansas. Arkansas Geological Commission Bulletin 22, 53 pp. PDF: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/publication/bulletins/b22-bulletin.html

Websites

Arkansas fossils (Paleoaerie: Arkansas Educational Resource Initiative for Evolution and Arkansas Paleontology): https://paleoaerie.org/arkansas-fossils/

Fossils (Arkansas Geological Survey): https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geology/fossils.html

Kansas

Books, articles, and reports

Brosius, L. 2006. Windows to the past—A guidebook to common invertebrate fossils of Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey, Educational Series 16, 56 pp.

Everhart, M. J. 2005. Oceans of Kansas: A natural history of the Western Interior Sea. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 344 pp.

Williams, R. B. 1975. Ancient life found in Kansas rocks: An introduction to common Kansas fossils. Kansas Geological Survey, Educational Series 1, 44 pp. Web version: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/ancient/rep01.html

Websites

Invertebrate fossils of Kansas (Liz Brosius, 2016, Kansas Geological Survey, Public Information Circular 24): https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/PIC/pic24.html

GeoKansas: Fossils in Kansas (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/fossils-kansas

Louisiana

Books, articles, and reports

Schiebout, J., and S. Robichaud. undated, updated by S. Warny, L. Smith, R. Tedford, and M. Norman). Fossil hunting in Louisiana gravels. Louisiana State University. PDF: https://www.lsu.edu/mns/files/activities/fossilgravels.pdf

Missouri

Books, articles, and reports

2016. Capitol fossils: A guide to some of the fossils in the Missouri state capitol. Missouri Geological Survey. Missouri Department of Natural Resources PUB2488, 4 pp. PDF: https://dnr.mo.gov/document-search/capitol-fossils-pub2488

Mehl, M. G. 1962. Missouri’s Ice Age animals. State of Missouri Division of Geological Survey and Water Resources, Educational Series 1: 104 pp. PDF: https://share.mo.gov/nr/mgs/MGSData/Books/Educational/Missouri's%20Ice%20Age%20Mammals/ED-001.pdf

Unklesbay, A. G. 1955. The common fossils of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 98 pp.

Websites

Fossils (Missouri Department of Natural Resources): https://dnr.mo.gov/land-geology/geology/rocks-minerals-fossils/fossils (Covers different types of fossils found in Missouri, mostly Paleoozoic marine invertebrates)

Missouri Fossils (B. L. Stinchcomb, 1997, originally published in Rocks & Minerals, 72(6)): http://www.lakeneosho.org/MissouriFossils/index.html (This website includes a short history of the Chronister Vertebrate Site at http://www.lakeneosho.org/Ozarks/Chronister.html)

Missouri Leviathan: the making of an American mastodon (Kerry Lotzof, Natural History Museum, London, Collections): https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/the-making-of-an-american-mastodon.html

Oklahoma

Websites

Common Fossils of Oklahoma (Sam Noble Museum): https://samnoblemuseum.ou.edu/common-fossils-of-oklahoma/

Activities

Chaplin, J. 2011. Dot-to-dot Earth science activities for grades 1–6, fossil edition. Oklahoma Geological Survey Fossil Edition of Educational Publication 10, 57 pp. PDF: http://ogs.ou.edu/docs/educationalpublications/EP10.pdf

Texas

Books, articles, and reports

Akers, R. E., and T. J. Akers. 1997. Texas Cretaceous gastropods. Paleontology Section, Houston Gem and Mineral Society, Texas Paleontology Series, Publication 6, 340 pp.

Akers, R. E., and T. J. Akers. 2002. Texas Cretaceous bivalves 2. Paleontology Section, Houston Gem and Mineral Society, Texas Paleontology Series, Publication 7, 516 pp.

Finsley, C. 1999. Field guide to fossils of Texas. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, 188 pp.

Harris, A. H. 2000. Plio-Pleistocene vertebrate fossils of the El Paso area. An informal, non-refereed electronic publication of the Centennial Museum, number 6. PDF: https://www.utep.edu/leb/pdf/elpasof.pdf

Jacobs, L. 1995. Lone star dinosaurs. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 160 pp.

Mckinzie, M., and J. McLeod. 2021. Color field guide to Pennsylvanian fossils of north Texas. Lulu, 280 pp. (This book has earlier editions.)

Websites

Big Bend National Park: Fossils in Big Bend National Park: https://www.nps.gov/bibe/learn/nature/fossils.htm

Dinosaur Valley State Park: https://tpwd.texas.gov/state-parks/dinosaur-valley

Guadalupe Mountains National Park: Geologic Formations: https://www.nps.gov/gumo/learn/nature/geologicformations.htm

Permian Reefs and Carbonate Complexes, West Texas (Bruce Cornet): http://www.sunstar-solutions.com/sunstar/geology/Permian/PermianTX.htm

TXFossils (R. Wise): https://www.txfossils.com/

Waco Mammoth Site, http://www.waco-texas.com/cms-waco/mammoth/

Whiteside Museum of Natural History (Seymour, Texas): https://www.wmnh.org/ (Includes a page on Permian plants: https://www.wmnh.org/general-8-2)

Videos

Glen Rose Dinosaur Tracks (Texas Natural Sciences Center): http://www.utexas.edu.tmm/exhibits/trackway

Activities

Geologic Wonders of Texas: Dinosaur footprints (Texas Bureau of Economic Geology): https://www.beg.utexas.edu/geowonders/dinosaur (Includes lesson plans for grades K to 4 and 5 to 8)

Topography

Books, articles, and reports

Huffman, G. G. 1958. Geology of the flanks of the Ozark Uplift, northeastern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin 77, 281 pp. View online at HathiTrust: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/010062098

Reichman, O. J. 1991. Konza Prairie: A tallgrass natural history. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 226 pp.

Simms, J., F. Simms, and N. H. Suneson. 1995. The geology of the southwestern Ozark uplift: An introduction and field-trip guide. Oklahoma Geological Survey Open-File Report 6-95, 27 pp. PDF: http://ogs.ou.edu/docs/openfile/OF6-95.pdf

Websites

Arkansas Geological Survey: Geology Resources: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/education/geology-resources.html (Includes resources on the physiographic provinces of Arkansas.)

Arkansas Valley (T. Foti, 2011, Encyclopedia of Arkansas): https://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/entries/arkansas-valley-441/#

Flint Hills Geology, Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve (National Park Service): https://www.nps.gov/articles/000/flint-hills-geology.htm

GeoKansas: Physiographic regions (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/physiographic-regions

Mineral resources

Books, articles, and reports

2019. A Collection of Missouri Rocks and Minerals. Missouri Geological Survey. Missouri Department of Natural Resources PUB2817, 20 pp. PDF: https://dnr.mo.gov/document-search/collection-missouri-rocks-minerals-pub2817

Johnson, K. S. 1998. Geology and mineral resources of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Information Series 2, 4 pp.

Johnson, K. S., and K. V. Luza (eds.) Earth sciences and mineral resources of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Educational Publication 9, 22 pp. PDF: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_All.pdf

Websites

Arkansas Geological Survey: Industrial minerals: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/minerals/industrial.html

Crater of Diamonds State Park (Arkansas): https://www.arkansasstateparks.com/parks/crater-diamonds-state-park

GeoKansas: Minerals in Kansas (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/minerals-kansas

GeoKansas: Mining and quarrying (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/mining-and-quarrying

Historic Joplin (Missouri): A daylight mine (blog post, March 28, 2012 by Brown): http://www.historicjoplin.org/?p=630

Lead and zinc mining in Kansas (L. Brosius and R. S. Sawin, 2001, Kansas Geological Survey Public Information Circular 17): https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/pic17/pic17_1.html

The Handbook of Texas Online: Mineral resources and mining (Texas State Historical Association): https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/mineral-resources-and-mining

Missouri Department of Natural Resources: Mining and land reclamation: https://dnr.mo.gov/land-geology/mining-land-reclamation (Includes links to pages on mining and mineral resources in Missouri.)

Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma: Selenite Crystals (2013, US Fish and Wildlife Service): https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Salt_Plains/about/selenite.html

Glaciers

Books, articles, and reports

Lyle, S. A. 2009. Glaciers in Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey, Public Information Circular 28, 6 pp. Webpage and PDF: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/PIC/pic28.html

Mehl, M. G. 1962. Missouri’s Ice Age animals. State of Missouri Division of Geological Survey and Water Resources, Educational Series 1: 104 pp. PDF: https://share.mo.gov/nr/mgs/MGSData/Books/Educational/Missouri's%20Ice%20Age%20Mammals/ED-001.pdf

Websites

GeoKansas: Glaciated Region (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/glaciated-region

Missouri Conservationist: Missouri's icy past (Tom Nagel, Missouri Department of Conservation): https://mdc.mo.gov/magazines/conservationist/2001-12/missouris-icy-past

Energy

Books, articles, and reports

Johnson, K. S., and K. V. Luza (eds.) Earth sciences and mineral resources of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Educational Publication 9, 22 pp. PDF: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_All.pdf (Includes information on mineral deposits by K. S Johnson on page 10 and information on oil and gas production by D. T. Boyd on page 11.)

Newell, K. D., R. S. Sawin, and L. L. Brady. 2001 (revised 2012). Natural gas from coal in eastern Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey Public Information Circular 19, 4 pp. PDF: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/pic19/PIC19.pdf

Suchy, D. R., and D. Newell. 2011 (revised 2012). Hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells in Kansas. Kansas Geological Survey Public Information Circular 32, 6 pp. Webpage and PDF: https://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/PIC/pic32.html

Websites

GeoKansas: Coal mining (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/coal-mining

GeoKansas: Oil and natural gas in Kansas (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/oil-and-natural-gas-kansas

The Handbook of Texas Online: Mineral resources and mining (Texas State Historical Association): https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/mineral-resources-and-mining

Missouri Department of Natural Resources: Mining and land reclamation: https://dnr.mo.gov/land-geology/mining-land-reclamation (Links to pages on mining and mineral resources in Missouri, including coal.)

Subsidence and Wetland Loss Related to Fluid Energy Production, Gulf Coast Basin (St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, 2020, U.S. Geological Survey). https://www.usgs.gov/centers/st.-petersburg-coastal-and-marine-science-center/science/subsidence-and-wetland-loss

Videos

Oklahoma Historical Society Film and Video Archives: Coal mining in Oklahoma (1952). https://youtu.be/5sYaUIWEzQs

Climate

Books, articles, and reports

Johnson, K. S., and K. V. Luza (eds.) Earth sciences and mineral resources of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Educational Publication 9, 22 pp. PDF: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_All.pdf (Includes information on climate by H. L. Johnson on pages 18 and 19.)

 

Websites

Our Changing Climate: Southern Great Plains (Fourth National Climate Assessment, 2018; includes Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas): https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/23/

Our Changing Climate: Midwest ((Fourth National Climate Assessment, 2018; includes Missouri): https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/21/

Our Changing Climate (Fourth National Climate Assessment, 2018; includes Arkansas and Louisiana): https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/chapter/19/

Earth hazards

Books, articles, and reports

2009. Earthquake hazard in the New Madrid seismic zone remains a concern. U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009-3071. PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3071/pdf/FS09-3071.pdf

2015. Geologic hazards in Missouri: Earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides, abandoned mines. Missouri Geological Survey, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. PDF: https://dnr.mo.gov/document-search/geologic-hazards-missouri-pub2467

2019. Gulf Coast Hurricane Preparedness. National Weather Service Mobile/Pensacola, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. PDF: https://www.weather.gov/media/mob/pdf/GulfCoastHurricanePrep.pdf

Darold, A. P., A. A. Holland, J. K. Morris, and A. R. Gibson. 2015. Oklahoma earthquake summary report 2014. Oklahoma Geological Survey Open-File Report OF1-2015. PDF: http://ogs.ou.edu/docs/openfile/OF1-2015.pdf

McCulloh, R. P., P. V. Heinrich, and B. Good. 2006. Geology and hurricane-protection strategies in the greater New Orleans area. Louisiana Geological Survey, Public Information Series No. 11, 32 pp. PDF: https://www.lsu.edu/lgs/publications/products/Free_publications/Geo-Hurricane-Protection-StrategiesNO.pdf

Johnson, K. S., and K. V. Luza (eds.) Earth sciences and mineral resources of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey, Educational Publication 9, 22 pp. PDF: http://www.ogs.ou.edu/pubsscanned/EP9_All.pdf (Includes information on earthquakes by K. V. Luza on page 9 and geologic hazards by K. V. Luza and K. S. Johnson on page 15.)

Stevenson, D. A., and R. P. McCulloh. 2001. Earthquakes in Louisiana. Louisiana Geological Survey, Public Information Series 7, 8 pp. https://www.lsu.edu/lgs/publications/products/Free_publications/La-earthquakes.pdf

Websites

1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri Earthquakes (U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/science/1811-1812-new-madrid-missouri-earthquakes

Arkansas Geological Survey: Earthquakes: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geohazards/earthquakes-in-arkansas.html

Arkansas Geological Survey: Expansive soils: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geohazards/expansive-soils.html

Arkansas Geological Survey: Landslides: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geohazards/landslides.html

Arkansas Geological Survey: Land subsidence: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geohazards/land-subsidence.html

Arkansas Geological Survey: Other geohazards: https://www.geology.arkansas.gov/geohazards/other-geohazards-flood-hazardous-minerals-radon-and-groundwater-contamination.html (Covers floods, groundwater contamination, and radon.)

Coastal Hazards, Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS): https://gcoos.org/focus-areas/coastal-hazards/

GeoKansas: Earthquakes, sinkholes, landslides, and environmental issues (University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey): https://geokansas.ku.edu/earthquakes-sinkholes-landslides-and-environmental-issues

Kansas floods (Kansas Water Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey): https://www.usgs.gov/centers/kansas-water-science-center/kansas-floods

Louisiana coastal wetlands: A resource at risk (USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program): https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/la-wetlands/

Missouri Department of Natural Resources: Geologic hazards: https://dnr.mo.gov/land-geology/hazards (Links to pages on geologic hazards of Missouri, like earthquakes, sinkholes, and landslides.)

Subsidence and Wetland Loss Related to Fluid Energy Production, Gulf Coast Basin (St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, 2020, U.S. Geological Survey). https://www.usgs.gov/centers/st.-petersburg-coastal-and-marine-science-center/science/subsidence-and-wetland-loss

Thriving on a sinking landscape (C. Kennedy, 2022, Climate.gov, NOAA): https://www.climate.gov/news-features/features/thriving-sinking-landscape

Videos

Louisiana Coastal Land Loss Simulation 1932–2050 (U.S. Geological Survey National Westlands Research Center). https://youtu.be/zQhrgqaQiwQ