Photograph of small bivalve fossils from the early Pleistocene Nashua Formation of Florida.

Additional Resources for Earth Science of the Southeastern United States

Page snapshot: Lists of supplemental and teaching resources for the Earth science of the southeastern United States, sorted by topic.


Topics covered on this page: Geologic history; Rocks; Fossils; Topography; Mineral resources; Energy; Climate; Earth hazards.

Credits: Most of the resources from this page come from the The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Geology of the Southeastern U.S., 2nd. ed., edited by Andrielle N. Swaby, Mark D. Lucas, and Robert M. Ross (published in 2016 by the Paleontological Research Institution; currently out of print). The book was adapted for the web by Elizabeth J. Hermsen and Jonathan R. Hendricks in 2021–2022.

Updates: Page last updated January 19, 2022.

Image above: Small bivalve fossils from the early Pleistocene Nashua Formation of Florida. Photograph by Jonathan R. Hendricks.

Disclaimer: Links to commercial websites (internet retailers, rock and mineral shops, informational websites that include a shop, etc.) do not constitute endorsement of their products.

Geologic history

Books and articles

Bryan, J., T. Scott, and G. Means. 2008. Roadside geology of Florida. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 368 pp.

Cardwell, D. H. 1975. Geologic history of West Virginia. West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, 64 pp.

Dockery, D. T., III, and D. E. Thompson. 2016. The geology of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi, 692 pp.

Frye, K. 1986. Roadside geology of Virginia. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 256 pp.

Gore, P. J., and W. D. Witherspoon. 2013. Roadside geology of Georgia. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 360 pp.

Hatcher, R. D., Jr., 2010. The Appalachian orogeny: A brief summary. In: From Rodinia to Pangea: The Lithotectonic Record of the Appalachian Region, edited by R. P. Tollo, M. J. Bartholomew, J. P. Hibbard, & P. M. Karabinos. Geological Society of America Memoir 206: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1130/2010.1206(01)

Hine, A., and C. Williams. 2013. Geologic History of Florida: Major Events that Formed the Sunshine State. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 256 pp.

Horton, J. W., Jr., and V. A. Zullo, eds. 1991. The geology of the Carolinas. Carolina Geological Society 50th Anniversary Volume. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 406 pp.

Lacefield, J. 2013. Lost worlds in Alabama rocks: A guide to the state’s ancient life and landscapes, 2nd ed. Alabama Museum of Natural History and the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, 276 pp.

Lane, E., ed. 1994. Florida's geological history and geological resources. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 35, 76 pp.

Murphy, C. H. 1995. Carolina rocks! The geology of South Carolina. Sandlapper Publishing Company, Orangeburg, South Carolina, 261 pp.

Randazzo, A. F., and D. S. Jones. 1997. The geology of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 400 pp.

Stewart, K. G., & M.-R. Roberson. 2007. Exploring the Geology of the Carolinas: A Field Guide to Favorite Places from Chimney Rock to Charleston. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 320 pp.

Websites

The Geological Evolution of Virginia and the Mid-Atlantic Region (by L. S. Fichter and S. J. Baedke, 2000): http://csmgeo.csm.jmu.edu/geollab/vageol/vahist/index.html

Geologic History of Georgia: Overview (by P. J. W. Gore, 2006, in New Georgia Encyclopedia): https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/science-medicine/geologic-history-of-georgia-overview/

Geology, topic in the Encyclopedia of Alabama (various authors): http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/category/Geology-1

Plate Tectonics History of Virginia (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014. Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Tectonics/GeologyOfVATectonics6-3d.html

Field trip guides

I-68/I-70A Window to the Appalachians (by J. J. Renton, GeoEducational Resources, West Virginia Geological Survey): http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/FieldTrip/I68I70AWindowtotheAppalachians_10162014.pdf

Mount Rogers [Virginia] Field Trip (Radford University): https://www.radford.edu/~fldsch/RUFieldschool/fieldtrips/MountRogers/MtRogersIndex.html

A geology field trip [Geological field trip across West Virginia]. (by J. J. Renton, GeoEducational Resources, West Virginia Geological Survey.) PDF: http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/FieldTrip/GeologyFieldTripGuide.pdf

Activities

Activities in Historical Geology (West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, 2001, 53 pp.), PDF: http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/Activities_in_Historical_Geology.PDF (A collection of activities for 4th to 12th grade, annotated with West Virginia Instructional Goals and Objectives.)

Understanding Geologic Time (PDF, Texas Memorial Museum, University of Texas at Austin):  http://www.jsg.utexas.edu/glow/files/Understanding-Geologic-Time-6-8.pdf (Timeline activity for middle school students.)

Rocks

Books and articles

Anderson, W. H. 1994. Rocks and minerals of Kentucky. Kentucky Geological Survey and University of Kentucky, Special Publication, 82 pp.

Andrews, E. M., Sr. 1966 (2011 reprint). Georgia's fabulous treasure hoards: A compendium for rockhounds, prospectors, and various seekers of gold, silver, diamonds, etc. with known & historic locations. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, Seattle, Washington, 130 pp.

Jacquot, R. 2005. Rock, gem, and mineral collecting sites in western North Carolina. Land of the Sky Books, Alexander, North Carolina, 192 pp.

Renton, J. J., and T. E. Repine, Jr. 2011 (revised 2013). Sedimentary rocks: Conceptual understanding series for West Virginia science teachers. West Virginia Geological Survey Publication ED-16, 50 pp. http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/SedimentaryRocksED16a.pdf

Renton, J. J., & T. E. Repine, Jr. 2013. Igneous rocks: Conceptual understanding series for West Virginia science teachers. West Virginia Geological Survey Publication ED-17, 22 pp. http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/IgneousRocksED17a.pdf

Streeter, M. 2003. A rockhounding guide to North Carolina's Blue Ridge Mountains. Milestone Press, Almond, North Carolina, 132 pp.

Williams, D. D. 2013. Rocks of the Piedmont: A full color photo guide to the rocks of the Piedmont and eastern Blue Ridge provinces of Georgia and adjacent states. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, Seattle, Washington, 96 pp.

Williams, D. D. 2013. The rocks of Georgia. Possum Publications, Athens, Georgia, 132 pp.

Websites

Rocks of Virginia (Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy): https://www.energy.virginia.gov/geology/rocks.shtml

Rocks in Virginia (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014. Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Rocks/GeologyOfVARocks2-6a.html

Fossils

General/multiple states

Books and articles

Burns, J. 1991. Fossil collecting in the Mid-Atlantic states. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 216 pp.

Ebersole, S. M., and J. L. King. 2011. A review of non-avian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 28: 81–93.

Ward, L. W. 1992. Molluscan biostratigraphy of the Miocene, middle Atlantic coastal plain of North America. Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir 2, 159 pp.

Website

Resources from the Paleontological Research Institution & partners:

Atlas of Ordovician Life (by A. Stigall; covers southeastern Illinois, southwestern Ohio, and north-central Kentucky): https://www.ordovicianatlas.org/

Neogene Atlas of Ancient Life (covers the Neogene of the Coastal Plain in Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida): Southeastern United States: https://neogeneatlas.net/

Other websites:

The Paleontology Portal: http://paleoportal.org (North American fossil record and geologic and climate histories, by state.)

Alabama

Books

Copeland, C. W., Jr. 1963. Curious creatures in Alabama rocks: a guide book for amateur fossil collectors. Geological Survey of Alabama Circular 19, 45 p.

King, D. T., Jr. 2003. Alabama Dinosaurs, 3rd ed. Parsimony Press, Auburn, Alabama, 147 pp.

Thurmond, J. T., and D. E. Jones. 1981. Fossil vertebrates of Alabama. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 244 pp.

Field trip guides

Kopaska-Merkel, D. C., & R. J. Buta. 2012. Field-trip guidebook to the Steven C. Minkin Paleozoic Footprint Site, Walker County, Alabama. Alabama Paleontological Society, 31 pp.

Websites

Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis (by D. T. King, Jr., 2009, updated 2019, topic in Encyclopedia of Alabama): http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-2319

Basilosaurus cetoides (by P. D. Gingerich, 2007, updated 2015, topic in Encyclopedia of Alabama): http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1386

Fossils (by D. C. Kopaska-Merkel, 2007, updated 2015, topic in Encyclopedia of Alabama): http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1152

Late Cretaceous Dinosaurs of the Southeastern United States (D. T. King, Jr.): http://webhome.auburn.edu/~kingdat/dinosaur_webpage.htm

Florida

Brayfield, L., and W. Brayfield. 1993. A guide for identifying Florida fossil shells and other invertebrates, 3rd ed. Florida Paleontological Society, Gainesville, Florida, 112 pp.

Brown, R. C. 1996. Florida's fossils: Guide to location, identification, and enjoyment, revised ed. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida, 208 pp.

Fuqua, R. L. 2011. Hunting fossil shark teeth in Venice, Florida: the complete guide: On the beach, scuba diving, and inland. Robert L. Fuqua, Venice, Florida, 80 pp.

Hulbert, R. C. 2001. The fossil vertebrates of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 384 pp. (Technical.)

Renz, M. 1999. Fossiling in Florida: A guide for diggers and divers. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 216 pp.

Renz, M. 2002. Megalodon: Hunting the hunter. PaleoPress, Lehigh Acres, Florida, 170 pp.

Georgia

Books

Martin, A. 2013. Life traces of the Georgia coast: Revealing the unseen lives of plants and animals. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 692 pp.

Websites

Georgiacetus vogtlensis (T. Thurman, 2019, topic in New Georgia Encyclopedia): https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/science-medicine/georgiacetus-vogtlensis/

Life Traces of the Georgia Coast: Unseen lives of the Georgia Barrier Islands (blog by A. Martin, Emory University): http://www.georgialifetraces.com/

Paleontology of the Coastal Plain Province (D. R. Schwimmer, 2017, topic in New Georgia Encyclopedia): https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/science-medicine/paleontology-of-the-coastal-plain-province/

Kentucky

Books

Hedeen, S. 2008. Big Bone Lick: The cradle of American paleontology. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, 182 p.

Meyer, D. L., and R. A. Davis. 2009. A sea without fish: Life in the Ordovician sea of the Cincinnati region. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 346 pp.

Websites

A salt lick puts Kentucky on the map (Kentucky Geological Survey): https://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/did-big-bone-lick-map.php

Cincinnati Dry Dredgers: http://drydredgers.org (An unusually active fossil club that visits Kentucky and other regional sites.)

Fossils of Kentucky (Kentucky Geological Survey and University of Kentucky): https://www.uky.edu/KGS/fossils/

The Stratigraphy and Fossils of the Upper Ordovician near Cincinnati, Ohio [including Kentucky] (UGA Stratigraphy Lab): http://strata.uga.edu/cincy/index.html

Thomas Jefferson and the birthplace of North American vertebrate paleontology (Kentucky Geological Survey): https://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/did-big-bone-lick-birthplace.php

Mississippi

Dockery, D. T., III, and D. E. Thompson. 2016. The geology of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 692 pp. (Contains extensive coverage of fossils.)

North Carolina

Books

Carter, J. G., P. E. Gallagher, R. E. Valone, and T. J. Rossbach, with contributions by P. G. Gensel, W. H. Wheeler, and D. Whitman. 1988. Fossil collecting in North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Geological Survey Section, Bulletin 89, 89 pp.

Chandler, R., and J. Timmerman. 2011. Neogene and Quaternary fossils of North Carolina—A Field Guide. North Carolina Fossil Club, Raleigh, 58 pp.

Olsen, P. E., and A. K. Johansson. 1994. Field guide to Late Triassic tetrapod sites in Virginia and North Carolina. Pp. 408–443 in the Shadow of the Dinosaurs, N. C. Fraser & H.-D. Sues (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Ray, C. E., ed. 1987. Geology and paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, II. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 61, 529 pp.

Timmerman, J., and R. Chandler. 2008. Cretaceous and Paleogene fossils of North Carolina—A Field Guide, corrected ed. North Carolina Fossil Club, Raleigh, 70 pp.

Websites

Aurora Fossil Museum: http://aurorafossilmuseum.org/

South Carolina

Cicimurri, D. J., & J. L. Knight. 2009. Two shark-bitten whale skeletons from Coastal Plain deposits of South Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist, 8(1): 71–82.

Howe, J. T., & A. S. Howard. 1978. Fossil locations in South Carolina. South Carolina State Museum Bulletin 3, 59 pp.

Tennessee

Books and articles

Brister, R., and R. Young. 2007. The fossils of Coon Creek: An Upper Cretaceous Mississippi Embayment marine site in McNairy County, Tennessee. Coon Creek Science Center, Adamsville, TN, 66 pp., 65 pls. PDF of part 1: http://www.memphisgeology.org/images/Coon%20Creek%20book%201st%20Half%20draft%20final.pdf PDF of part2: http://www.memphisgeology.org/images/Coon%20Creek%20book%202nd%20Half%20draft%20final.pdf

Corgan, J. X. 1976. Vertebrate fossils of Tennessee. Tennessee Department of Conservation Bulletin 77, 100 pp.

Corgan, J. X., and E. Breitburg. 1996. Tennessee’s prehistoric vertebrates. Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Geology, Bulletin 84, 170 pp.

Moore, H. 2004. The bone hunters: the discovery of Miocene fossils in Gray, Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 144 pp.

Schubert, B. W., and J. I. Mead. 2011. The Gray Fossil Site: 10 years of research. Don Sunquist Center of Excellence in Paleontology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, 98 pp.

Websites

Gray Fossil Site and museum (East Tennessee State University): https://www.etmnh.org/

Gray Fossil Site in Tennessee (by M. Kohl, Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation): https://www.tn.gov/environment/program-areas/tennessee-geological-survey/geology-redirect/gray-fossil-site-in-tennessee.html

Virginia

Books

Burns, J. 2014. Virginia through time: a natural history atlas. Pietas Publications, Waynesboro, Virginia, 74 pp.

McLoughlin, T. F. 2013. A guide to Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age plant fossils of southwest Virginia. Trafford Publishing, Bloomington, Indiana, 138 pp.

Olsen, P. E., and A. K. Johansson. 1994. Field guide to Late Triassic tetrapod sites in Virginia and North Carolina. Pp. 408–443 in In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs, N. C. Fraser & H.-D. Sues (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Websites

Selected Virginia fossils (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014. Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Fossils/GeologyOfVAFossils3-4a.html

West Virginia

Amjad, H. 2006. Fossils of West Virginia, Vol. 1: Invertebrates & vertebrates. Ayne Amjad, Beckley, West Virginia, 400 pp.

Amjad, H. 2006. Fossils of West Virginia, Vol. 2: Plant life & paleobotany. Ayne Amjad, Beckley, West Virginia, 338 pp.

Concise Guide to Plant Fossils of West Virginia (Images from Plant Fossils of West Virginia, WVGES ED-3A, by Gillespie, Clendening, and Pfefferkorn, 1978; illustrations by B. Schleger). PDF: https://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/AdaptiveEarthScienceActivities/Extras/ConciseGuideToPlantFossilsWV.pdf

Topography

Books

Lane, E. Karst in Florida. 1986. Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 29, 100 pp. PDF: https://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000144/00001

Tihansky, A. B. 1999. Sinkholes: West-central Florida. Pp. 121–140 in Land Subsidence in the United States, D. Galloway, D. R. Jones, and S. E. Ingebritsen (eds.). US Geological Survey Circular 1182, pp. PDF: https://fl.water.usgs.gov/PDF_files/cir1182_tihansky.pdf

Websites

Geologic Regions of Georgia: Overview (W. J. Frazier, 2020, topic in New Georgia Encyclopedia): https://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/science-medicine/geologic-regions-of-georgia-overview/

The history of the Glades of the central Tennessee Basin (Middle Tennessee State University): https://w1.mtsu.edu/glade-center/gladehistory.php

Karst Hydrology (by G. H. Shaw in Water Encyclopedia: Science and Issues): http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Hy-La/Karst-Hydrology.html

Landforms in Virginia (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014, Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Weathering/GeologyOfVAWeathering5-7a.html

Physical Features (topic in Encyclopedia of Alabama, various authors): http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/category/PhysicalRegions (A list of links to specific features.)

Physiographic Map of Kentucky (Kentucky Geological Survey and University of Kentucky): https://www.uky.edu/KGS/geoky/physiographic.htm

Physiographic Sections of Alabama, by M. Nielson, Encyclopedia of Alabama, http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1362

Physiography [of Virginia] (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014, Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Physiography/PhysioIntro-1.html#

Videos

How The Ohio River Was Formed (PBS LearningMedia, lesson adapted from Where the river bends: A history of northern Kentucky): https://ny.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ket08.sci.ess.earthsys.ohioriver/how-the-ohio-river-was-formed/

Mineral resources

Books

Comfort, I. T. 1998. Florida’s geological treasures. Gem Guides Book Company, Baldwin Park, California, 128 pp.

Eckert, A. W. 2000. Earth treasures volume 2: The Southeastern quadrant [of the US]. iUniverse.com, Lincoln, NW, 516 pp.

Hilton, B., Jr. 1995. Hidden treasures: rocks and minerals of the South Carolina Piedmont. South Carolina Wildlife, 42(2): 34–36. Original draft available at: http://www.hiltonpond.org/ArticleMineralsSCMain.html

Jacquot, R. 2005. Rock, gem, and mineral collecting sites in western North Carolina. Land of the Sky Books, Alexander, North Carolina, 192 pp.

Monaco, J. M., and J. H. Monaco. 2010. Fee mining and mineral adventures in the eastern US, 2nd ed. Gem Guide Books Company, Upland, California, 264 pp.

Oles, F., and H. Oles. 1967. Eastern gem trails: a guide to the most attractive and productive gem and mineral collecting areas of central-eastern United States. Gembooks, Mentone, California, 80 pp.

Rygle, K. J., and S. F. Pedersen. 2011. Southeast treasure hunter's gem & mineral guide: Where & how to dig, pan, and mine your own gems & minerals, 5th ed. GemStone Press, Woodstock, VT, 192 pp.

Websites

Minerals of Alabama (L. Dean, 2007, updated 2020, topic in the Encyclopedia of Alabama): http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1273

Selected Virginia Minerals (by P. Sethi, R. Whisonant, K. Cecil, and P. Newbill, 2014, Radford University, Geology of Virginia): https://www.radford.edu/jtso/GeologyofVirginia/Minerals/GeologyOfVAMinerals1-4.html

Energy

Books, articles, and reports

Books, articles, and reports from the Paleontological Research Institution:

2013. Under siege: Marine life vs. the Gulf Oil Spill. Paleontological Research Institution. PDF: https://www.priweb.org/science-education-programs-and-resources/under-siege-marine-life-vs-the-gulf-oil-spill

Duggan-Haas, D., R. M. Ross, and W. D. Allmon. 2013. The science beneath the surface: A very short guide to the Marcellus Shale. Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication 43, Ithaca, NY, 252 pp. PDF: https://www.priweb.org/science-education-programs-and-resources/the-marcellus-shale-the-science-beneath-the-surface

Other books, articles, and reports:

Burtchett, B. I. 1983. A history of the village of Midlothian, Virginia emphasizing the period 1835–1935. Masters of Arts thesis, University of Richmond. Master's Theses Paper 479. PDF: https://scholarship.richmond.edu/masters-theses/479

Hernigle, J. L. 1991. An archipelago of coal pits: Predicting archeological features in the Richmond, Virginia coalfield. Master of Arts, College of William and Mary in Virginia. Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects. Paper 1539625657. PDF: https://doi.org/10.21220/s2-8ycx-hp66

Lewis, R. L. 1979. "The Darkest Abode of Man": Black miners in the first southern coal field. The Virginian Magazine of History and Biography 87: 190–202. PDF: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4248298

McLaren, J. 2011. Southeast regional clean energy policy analysis. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-49192, 100 pp. PDF: https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/49192.pdf

Oil Sands in Alabama. Alabama Cooperative Extension System, report ANR-2192. PDF: https://ssl.acesag.auburn.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-2192/ANR-2192-archive.pdf

The Southeastern United States can benefit from a national renewable electricity Standard. Union of Concerned Scientists, 4 pp. PDF: https://www.eesi.org/files/Southeast_States_Rebuttal-Final.pdf

Southeast Wind Energy Fact Sheet. 2014. Southeastern Wind Coalition and Wind Exchange U.S. Department of Energy, 2 pp. PDF: https://www.sewind.org/images/fact_sheets/SEWC%20SE%20Regional%20Wind%20Energy%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Dec%202014.pdf

Websites

Energy News Network: Southeast Energy News: https://energynews.us/southeast/ (A daily collection of the region's top energy headlines.)

Mid-Lothian Mines Park: https://www.midlomines.org/home.html

Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (College of Engineering and Computer Science, Florida Atlantic University): https://snmrec.fau.edu/

Tennessee Valley Authority: Energy: https://www.tva.com/Energy

U.S. States: State profiles and energy estimates (U.S. Energy Information Administration): https://www.eia.gov/state/

Climate

Books and articles

Ingram, K. T., K. Dow, L. Carter, and J. Anderson. 2013. Climate of the Southeast United States: Variability, change, impacts, and vulnerability. Island Press, Washington, DC, 341 pp.

Kunkel, K. E, L. E. Stevens, S. E. Stevens, L. Sun, E. Janssen, D. Wuebbles, C. E. Konrad II, C. M. Fuhrman, B. D. Keim, M. C. Kruk, A. Billet, H. Needham, M. Schafer, and J. G. Dobson. 2013. Regional climate trends and scenarios for the US National Climate Assessment. Part 2. Climate of the Southeast US. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-2, 94 pp. PDF: https://scenarios.globalchange.gov/sites/default/files/NOAA_NESDIS_Tech_Report_142-2-Climate_of_the_Southeast_U.S_0.pdf

Websites

NC Climate Education (North Carolina State University): https://climate.ncsu.edu/learn/

Extreme Weather and Climate Change: The Southeast (Climate Central, 2011): https://www.climatecentral.org/library/climopedia/extreme-weather-and-climate-change-the-southeast

United States Climate Page (NOAA, Physical Sciences Laboratory): https://psl.noaa.gov/data/usclimate/states.fast.html (Clickable state map of the US to get city-by-city climate data, 1961–1990.)

Our Changing Climate: Southeast and the Caribbean (National Climate Assessment, 2014): https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/southeast

The Paleontology Portal: http://paleoportal.org/ (North American fossil record and geologic and climate histories, by state.)

Southeast and Caribbean, Climate change impacts (Climate Nexus): https://climatenexus.org/climate-change-us/state-impacts/southeast-and-caribbean/

Southeast Climate Adaptation Science Center (North Carolina State University): https://secasc.ncsu.edu/

Southeast Regional Climate Center: https://sercc.com/

Weatherbase: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/state.php3?c=US&s=&countryname=United-States (Monthly averages and forecasts for cities for each state.)

Earth hazards

Books, articles, and reports

Brinkmann, R. 2013. Florida sinkholes: Science and Policy. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 256 pp.

Doran, K. S., H. F. Stockdon, K. L. Sopkin, D. M. Thompson, and N. G. Plant. 2012. National assessment of hurricane-induced coastal erosion hazards: southeast Atlantic Coast. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1131, 28 pp. PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1131/

Gagan, J. P., A. Gerard, and J. Gordon. 2010. A historical and statistical comparison of "Tornado Alley" to "Dixie Alley." National Weather Digest, 34(2): 146–155. PDF: http://nwafiles.nwas.org/digest/papers/2010/Vol34No2/Pg145-Gagan-etal.pdf

Hubbard, D. A., Jr. Sinkholes. Virginia Division of Geology and Mineral Resources. PDF: https://energy.virginia.gov/commercedocs/SINKHOLES.pdf

Landslide Hazards in Kentucky (Kentucky Geological Survey and University of Kentucky). PDF: https://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/factsheet/landslide_factsheet.pdf

Weary, D. J. 2008. Preliminary Map of Potentially Karstic Carbonate Rocks in the Central and Southern Appalachian States. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1154. PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1154/

Maps

Karst Occurrence in Kentucky (R. L. Paylor and J. C. Currens, Kentucky Geological Survey): https://kgs.uky.edu/kgsweb/olops/pub/kgs/mc33_12.pdf

Landslide Hazard Maps of Western North Carolina (Appalachian Landslide Consultants PLLC): https://appalachianlandslide.com/landslide-hazard-maps/

West Virginia Flood Tool (West Virginia University Department of Geology & Geography): https://mapwv.gov/flood/index.html

Websites

Central Florida Hurricane Center: http://flhurricane.com/

Expansive soils (Virginia Department of Mines Minerals and Energy): https://energy.virginia.gov/geology/ExpansiveSoils.shtml

Florida sinkhole maps (Maps ETC, Educational Technology Clearinghouse, Florida Center for Instructional Technology, University of South Florida): http://fcit.usf.edu/Florida/maps/galleries/sinkholes/index.php

Florida karst resources (Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection): https://floridadep.gov/fgs/sinkholes/content/florida-karst-resources

Hurricanes and Tropical Systems, Southeast Regional Climate Center: https://sercc.com/hurricanes-and-tropical-systems/

Hurricanes (Mississippi Emergency Management Agency): https://www.msema.org/preparedness-2/hurricanes/

Landslides (Virginia Department of Mines Minerals and Energy): https://www.energy.virginia.gov/geology/landslides.shtml

North Carolina Radiation Protection Section (North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services): http://www.ncradon.org/ncradon/

Radon (Office of Radiation Control, Alabama Public Health): https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/radon/radon-in-alabama.html

Sinkholes (North Carolina Division of Water Resources): https://www.ncwater.org/?page=567

Sinkholes and Karst (Virginia Department of Mines Minerals and Energy): https://www.energy.virginia.gov/geology/sinkholes.shtml

The most "important" US tornadoes by state (Tornado Project Online, coverage ends around the year 2000): http://www.tornadoproject.com/alltorns/worstts.htm

Tornadoes (Florida Climate Center, Florida State University): https://climatecenter.fsu.edu/topics/tornadoes