Nineteenth century drawings of mastodon teeth collected from Big Bone Lick in Kentucky.

Resources

Page snapshot: Lists of supplemental and teaching resources for the Earth sciences, sorted by topic.


Topics covered on this page: General resources; Geologic history; Rocks; Fossils; Topography; Mineral resources; Glaciers; Energy; Climate; Earth hazards.

Credits: Most of the resources from this page come from the The Teacher-Friendly Guide to the Earth Science of the Southeastern U.S., 2nd. ed., edited by Andrielle N. Swaby, Mark D. Lucas, and Robert M. Ross (published in 2016 by the Paleontological Research Institution; currently out of print). The book was adapted for the web by Elizabeth J. Hermsen and Jonathan R. Hendricks in 2021–2022.

Updates: Page last updated July 5, 2022.

Image above: Illustrations of a mastodon tooth from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, collected in 1739. These images were published in 1756. Drawings by J. Ingram, plates III and IV from Guettard (1756) Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences, avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1972: 182–220. (via Biodiversity Heritage LibraryCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license, images cropped and resized).

Disclaimer: Links to commercial websites (internet retailers, rock and mineral shops, informational websites that include a shop, etc.) do not constitute endorsement of their products.

General resources

Websites

Additional resources from the Paleontological Research Institution

Earth at Home: Virtual Fieldwork: https://earthathome.org/vfe/

Earth at Home: Virtual Labs: https://earthathome.org/virtual-labs/

Other websites

Geology.com: Geoscience news and information: https://geology.com/

SERC: Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College: https://serc.carleton.edu/

Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences: Resources for undergraduate students and faculty (C. Manduca, PI; J. Wenner and E. Baer, editors): https://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/index.html

Geologic history

Books

Bjornerud, M. 2005. Reading the rocks: The autobiography of the Earth. Westview Press, Cambridge, MA, 237 pp.

Fortey, R. A. 2004. The Earth, an intimate history. HarperCollins, London, 509 pp.

Hazen, R. M. 2012. The story of Earth: The first 4.5 billion years, from stardust to living planet. Viking, New York, 306 pp.

Kious, J., & R. I. Tilling. 1996. The dynamic Earth: The story of plate tectonics. US Geological Survey, Washington, DC. Available online, open-access: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/dynamic.html

Macdougall, J. D. 1996. A short history of planet Earth: Mountains, mammals, fire, and ice. Wiley, New York, 266 pp.

Morton, J. L. 2004. Strata: The remarkable life story of William Smith, the father of English geology, new edition. Brocken Spectre, Horsham, UK, 171 pp.

Powell, J. 2001. Mysteries of terra firma: The age and evolution of the Earth. Free Press, New York, 256 pp.

Torsvik, T. H. and L. R. M. Cocks. 2017. Earth history and palaeogeography. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316225523

Winchester, S., and S. Vannithone. 2001. The map that changed the world: William Smith and the birth of modern geology. HarperCollins, New York, 329 pp.

Websites

Deep Time Maps: Maps of ancient Earth (R. Blakey, Colorado Plateau Geosystems): https://deeptimemaps.com (An updated version of Paleogeography.)

Earth Viewer (BioInteractive at Howard Hughes Medical Institute): http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/earthviewer (Free iPad application; an interactive paleogeographic atlas of the world; state and country overlays allow tracking the development of the states.)

Geologic Maps of the 50 United States (A. Alden): https://www.thoughtco.com/geologic-maps-of-the-united-states-4122863

North America During the Last 150,000 Years (compiled by J. Adams): http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nercNORTHAMERICA.html

The Paleomap Project (C. R. Scotese): http://www.scotese.com (High quality paleogeographic maps.)

Plate tectonics & our national parks (National Park Service): https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/plate-tectonics.htm

Geologic Time Scale (University of California Museum of Paleontology): http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.php (An online geologic calendar exhibit.)

Activities

Activities in Historical Geology (West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, 2001, 53 pp.), PDF: http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/www/geoeduc/Activities_in_Historical_Geology.PDF (A collection of activities for 4th to 12th grade, annotated with West Virginia Instructional Goals and Objectives.)

Toilet Paper Analogy for Geologic Time (J. M. Wenner): http://serc. carleton.edu/quantskills/activities/TPGeoTime.html (Demonstration of geological time using a 1000 sheet roll of toilet paper.)

Understanding Geologic Time (PDF, Texas Memorial Museum, University of Texas at Austin):  http://www.jsg.utexas.edu/glow/files/Understanding-Geologic-Time-6-8.pdf (Timeline activity for middle school students.)

Rocks

Books

Vernon, R. H. 2000. Beneath our feet: The rocks of planet Earth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 216 pp.

Rock and mineral field guides

Bonewitz, R. L. 2008. Rock and gem. Dorling Kindersley, New York, 360 pp.

Chesterman, C. W. 1979. National Audubon Society field guide to North American rocks and minerals. Knopf, New York, 850 pp.

Dixon, D., and R. L. Bernor. 1992. The practical geologist: The introductory guide to the basics of geology and to collecting and identifying rocks. Simon and Schuster, New York, 160 pp.

Johnsen, O. 2002. Minerals of the world. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 439 pp.

Mitchell, J. 2008. The rockhound’s handbook, revised edition. Gem Guides Book Company, Baldwin Park, California, 299 pp.

Pellant, C. 2002. Rocks & minerals. Dorling Kindersley (Smithsonian Handbooks), New York, 256 pp.

Prinz, M., G. Harlow, and J. Peters, eds. 1978. Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Rocks & Minerals. Simon and Schuster, New York, 607 pp.

Websites

Additional resources from the Paleontological Research Institution

Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science: Minerals: https://earthathome.org/de/minerals/

[email protected] Virtual Collection: Rocks: https://earthathome.org/vc/rocks/ (Virtual rock collection featuring 3D models of rock specimens sorted by type.)

Other websites

Atlas of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks, Minerals and Textures (University of North Carolina Geology Department): https://www.geolab.unc.edu/Petunia/mainmenu.html

A glossary of rock and mineral terminology (California Department of Conservation): https://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/minerals/minerals-glossary

Fossils

Books

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution

Allmon, W. D. 2009. Evolution & creationism: A very short guide, 2nd ed. Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication 35, Ithaca, New York, 128 pp.

Other books

Benton, M. J. 2008. The history of life: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 170 pp.

Black, R. 2010. Written in stone: Evolution, the fossil record, and our place in nature. Bellevue Literary Press, New York, 320 pp.

Fenton, C. L., and M. A. Fenton. 1958. The fossil book: A record of prehistoric life. Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 482 pp.

Fortey, R. A. 1998. Life: A natural history of the first four billion years of life on Earth. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 346 pp.

Knoll, A. H. 2003. Life on a young planet: The first three billion years of evolution on Earth. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 277 pp.

Prothero, D. R. 2006. After the dinosaurs: The Age of Mammals. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 362 pp.

Sampson, S. D. 2011. Dinosaur odyssey: Fossil threads in the web of life. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 352 pp.

Shubin, N. 2009. Your inner fish: A Journey into the 3.5-billion-year history of the human body. Vintage Books, New York, 256 pp.

Thomson, K. S. 2005. Fossils: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 147 pp.

Fossil field and identification guides

Arduini, P., G. Teruzzi, and S. S. Horenstein. 1986. Simon & Schuster’s guide to fossils. Simon and Schuster, New York, 317 pp.

Garcia, F. A., and D. S. Miller. 1998. Discovering fossils: How to find and identify remains of the prehistoric past. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, 212 pp.

Lichter, G. 1993. Fossil collector’s handbook: Finding, identifying, preparing, displaying. Sterling Publishing Company, New York, 160 pp.

Macdonald, J. R. 1983. The fossil collector’s handbook: a paleontology field guide. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 193 pp.

Murray, M. 1967. Hunting for fossils: A guide to finding and collecting fossils in all fifty states. Macmillan Company, Toronto, Canada, 348 pp.

Nudds, J. R., and P. A. Selden. 2008. Fossil ecosystems of North America: A guide to the sites and their extraordinary biotas. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 288 pp.

Parker, S. 1990. The practical paleontologist: A step-by-step guide to finding, studying, and interpreting fossils. Simon and Schuster, New York, 159 pp.

Parker, S. 2007. Fossil hunting: An expert guide to finding and identifying fossils and creating a collection. Southwater, London, 96 pp.

Ransom, J. E. 1964. Fossils in America: Their nature, origin, identification and classification and a range guide to collecting sites. Harper and Row, New York, 402 pp.

Thompson, I. 1982. The Audubon Society field guide to North American fossils. Knopf, New York, 846 pp.

Walker, C., D. Ward, and C. Keates. 2009. Fossils. Dorling Kindersley (Smithsonian Handbooks), New York, 320 pp.

Websites

Additional resources from the Paleontological Research Institution

Digital Atlas of Ancient Life Virtual Collection: https://www.digitalatlasofancientlife.org/vc/ (Virtual fossil collection featuring 3D models of fossil specimens sorted by group)

Digital Encyclopedia of Ancient Life: https://www.digitalatlasofancientlife.org/learn/

[email protected]: Quick guide to common fossils: https://earthathome.org/quick-faqs/quick-guide-common-fossils/

Other websites

Getting into the fossil record (University of California Berkeley): https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/explorations/tours/fossil/

Understanding evolution (University of California Berkeley): https://evolution.berkeley.edu/

The Virtual Petrified Wood Museum (M. Viney, 2008): http://petrifiedwoodmuseum.org/Index.htm

Activities

Understanding evolution (University of California Berkeley): https://evolution.berkeley.edu/

Topography

Books

de Blij, H. J., P. O. Muller, J. E. Burt, & J. A. Mason. 2013. Physical geography of the global environment. Oxford University Press, New York, 626 pp.

Wyckoff, J. 1999. Reading the Earth: Landforms in the Making. Adastra West, Mahwah, NJ, 352 pp.

Maps

Color Landform Atlas of the US (R. Sterner): http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/states/states.html (Low resolution shaded relief maps of each state.)

Topoquest (R. Niemi): https://www.topoquest.com/

Websites

OpenTopography: Curriculum for Educators: https://opentopography.org/learn/curriculum

Teaching Geomorphology in the 21st Century: Topical resources (SERC): http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/geomorph/index.html (A set of resources for college level, some of which may be adaptable to secondary education.)

Teaching with Google Earth: On the cutting edge (created by G.A. Richard, updates by D. Krupnick and B. Pratt-Sitaula): https://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/google_earth/index.html

United States geography (S. S. Birdsall & J. Florin): http://countrystudies.us/united-states/geography.htm

Mineral resources

Books

Frank D., Galloway, J., and Assmus, K. 2005. The life cycle of a mineral deposit—a teacher’s guide for hands-on mineral education activities. US Geological Survey General Information Product 17, 40 pp. PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/2005/17/

Hausel, W. D. 2014. A guide to finding gemstones, gold, minerals, and rocks. Gemhunter Publications, Gilbert, Arizona, 370 pp.

Long, K. R., B. S. Van Gosen, N. K. Foley, and D. Cordier. 2010. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States—a summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5220, 96 pp. Website and PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5220/

Skinner, B. J. 1989. Mineral resources of North America. Pp. 575–584 in: The geology of North America: An overview, vol. A, A. W. Bally and A. R. Palmer (eds.). Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Websites

Additional resources from the Paleontological Research Institution

Digital Atlas of Ancient Life: Minerals (collection of 3D models on Sketchfab): https://skfb.ly/6WxTo

Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science: Minerals: https://earthathome.org/de/minerals/

Other websites

Finding gemstones - Professor Hausel's guide to gemstone deposits in nature (W. D. Hausel): https://gemstonehunter.blogspot.com/

A glossary of rock and mineral terminology (California Department of Conservation): https://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/minerals/minerals-glossary

Handbook of mineralogy (Mineralogical Society of America, J. W. Anthony, R. A. Bideaux, K. W. Bladh, and M. C. Nichols, eds.): http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org (Technical information on 420 minerals available as free individual pdfs.)

International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (Resources, including a list of minerals): http://cnmnc.main.jp/

Mindat.org (Hudson Institute of Mineralogy): https://www.mindat.org/ (Claims to be the world’s largest public database of mineral information.)

Mineral gallery (Amethyst Galleries): http://www.galleries.com/ (Rock and mineral page created by a rock shop)

Mineralogy database (D. Barthelmy): http://webmineral.com

Mineralpedia—a mineral photo database and identification guide (T. Loomis and V. Loomis, Dakota Matrix Minerals, Inc.): https://www.dakotamatrix.com/mineralpedia

Mining History Association: Mining History Resources: http://www.mininghistoryassociation.org/links.htm#museums

Ore deposit terms (Earth Science Australia): http://earthsci.org/mineral/mindep/ore_def/ore_def.html

Prospecting for gold in the United States (by Harold Kirkemo, U.S. Geological Survey General Interest Publication): https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/prospect2/prospectgip.html

US Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program: https://www.usgs.gov/programs/mineral-resources-program (A wide range of data on mineral distribution and mining.)

US Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program: State Minerals Statistics and Information: https://www.usgs.gov/centers/national-minerals-information-center/state-minerals-statistics-and-information (State-by-state data on mineral resources)

Glaciers

Books, articles, and reports

Alley, R. B. 2000. The two-mile time machine: Ice cores, abrupt climate change, and our future. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 229 pp.

Benn, D. I., and D. J. Evans. 2010. Glaciers and glaciation, 2nd ed. Hodder Arnold, London, 816 pp.

Fagan, B. M. 2009. The complete Ice Age: How climate change shaped the world. Thames & Hudson, New York, 240 pp.

Ferguson, S. A. 1992. Glaciers of North America: A field guide. Fulcrum Publishers, Golden, Colorado, 176 pp.

Imbrie, J., and K. P. Imbrie. 1979. Ice ages: Solving the mystery. Enslow Publishers, Short Hills, New Jersey, 224 pp.

Macdougall, J. D. 2004. Frozen Earth: The once and future story of Ice ages. University of California Press, Berkeley, 256 pp.

Post, A., and E. LaChapelle. 2000, Glacier Ice, revised edition. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 160 pp.

Ruddiman, W. F. 2001. Earth’s climate: Past and future. W. H. Freeman, New York, 465 pp.

White, C. 2013. The melting world: A journey across America’s vanishing glaciers. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 272 pp.

Websites

Dutch, S. 1997 (last updated 1999). Pleistocene glaciers and geography. http://www.glyfac.buffalo.edu/mib/course/Figures/UWGBDutch/EarthSC202Notes/GLACgeog.HTM

Pidwirny, M. 2006. Landforms of glaciation. In: Fundamentals of physical geography, 2nd ed. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10af.html

Activities

Beyond penguins and polar bears (College of Education and Human Ecology, The Ohio State University): https://beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/icebergs-and-glaciers/hands-on-lessons-and-activities-about-glaciers (Lesson plans for grades K–5, including topics such as glacial ice, ice movement, and glacial erosion.) 

Glacier Power (NASA EarthData). https://earthdata.nasa.gov/learn/sensing-our-planet/glacier-power (Middle school glacier education resources; must order CD-ROM.)

Impact of Change in Glacier Ice (Alaska Seas and Watersheds, Alaska Sea Grant K–12 Education program): http://aswc.seagrant.uaf.edu/grade-8/investigation-2.html (Grade 8 lesson plan on glacier retreat.)  

Modeling Glacier Dynamics with Flubber (L. A. Stearns, National Association of Geoscience Teachers Teaching Activities): https://nagt.org/nagt/teaching_resources/teachingmaterials/11337.html

National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Educational Resources: https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/%20education-resources/ (High school- and college-level educational resources.)

Energy

Books

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution

Duggan-Haas, D., R. M. Ross, and W. D. Allmon. 2013. The science beneath the surface: A very short guide to the Marcellus Shale. Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication 43, Ithaca, NY, 252 pp. PDF: https://www.priweb.org/science-education-programs-and-resources/the-marcellus-shale-the-science-beneath-the-surface

Other books, articles and reports

Bird, K. J. 1989. North American fossil fuels. Pp. 555–574 in: The geology of North America: An overview, vol. A, A. W. Bally & A. R. Palmer (eds.), Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

Hinrichs, R., and M. H. Kleinbach. 2012. Energy: Its use and the environment, 5th ed. Thomson, Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, 640 pp.

Humphrey, H. B. 1960. Historical summary of coal-mine explosions in the United States, 1810–1958. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 586. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Nye, D. E. 1998. Consuming power: A social history of American energies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 331 pp.

Richards, J. 2009. Wind energy. Macmillan Library, South Yarra, Victoria, Canada, 32 pp. (For primary school age.)

Smil, V. 2006. Energy: A beginner’s guide. Oneworld, Oxford, UK, 181 pp.

Smil, V. 2010. Energy myths and realities: Bringing science to the energy policy debate. AEI Press, Washington, DC, 213 pp.

Wohletz, K., & G. Heiken. 1992. Volcanology and geothermal energy. University of California Press, Berkeley, 432 pp. Online edition: http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft6v19p151/

Maps

Trumbull, J. 1960. Coal fields of the conterminous United States. USGS Open-field Report OF 96-92.(digital map compiled by J. Tully, 1996) PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/of96-092/doc.htm 

Websites

American Association of Petroleum Geology (AAPG): https://www.aapg.org/

American Clean Power Association: https://cleanpower.org/

Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN): https://cleanet.org/ (A rich collection of resources for educators.)

Coal Bed Methane (Montana State University Extension): https://waterquality.montana.edu/energy/cbm/

Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP, EPA): https://www.epa.gov/cmop

Energy Literacy: Essential Principles for Energy Education (Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy): https://www.energy.gov/eere/education/energy-literacy-essential-principles-energy-education

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state, 2005–2016 (US Energy Information Administration, 2019): https://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/state/analysis/pdf/stateanalysis.pdf

Energy resources for state, local, and tribal governments (EPA): https://www.epa.gov/statelocalenergy

Geothermal basics (Geothermal Rising): https://geothermal.org/index.php/resources/geothermal-basics

History of Energy Use in the United States (Hobart King, Geology.com): https://geology.com/articles/history-of-energy-use/

Renewable and Alternative Fuels (US Energy Information Administration): https://www.eia.gov/renewable/

Renewable Energy (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions): https://www.c2es.org/content/renewable-energy/

US Department of Energy (DOE): https://www.energy.gov/

US Energy Information Administration (EIA): https://www.eia.gov/ (A wealth of information on energy production and use in the United States.)

US Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity (EIA): https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/ethanolcapacity/

US Geological Survey Energy Resources Program: https://www.usgs.gov/programs/energy-resources-program

US States: State profiles and energy estimates (EIA): https://www.eia.gov/state/

Wind resource data, tools, and maps (National Renewable Energy Laboratory): https://www.nrel.gov/gis/wind.html

Climate

Books and articles

Books from the Paleontological Research Institution

Allmon, W. D., T. A. Smrecak, and R. M. Ross. 2010. Climate change—past, present & future: a very short guide. Paleontological Research Institution Special Publication 38, Ithaca, NewYork, 200 pp.

Zabel, I. H. H., D. Duggan-Haas, and R. M. Ross (eds.). 2017. The teacher-friendly guide to climate change. Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York, 284 pp. https://www.priweb.org/science-education-programs-and-resources/teacher-friendly-guide-to-climate-change

Other books, articles, and reports

Beck, H. E., N. E. Zimmermann, T. R. McVicar, N. Vergopolan, A. Berg, and E. F. Wood. 2018. Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution. Scientific Data 5: 180214. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2018.214

Committee on the Importance of Deep-Time Geologic Records for Understanding Climate Change Impacts. 2011. Understanding Earth’s deep past: Lessons for our climate future. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/download.php?record_id=13111

Karl, T. R., J. M. Melillo, and T. C. Peterson, eds. 2009. Global climate change impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press, New York, 188 pp. PDF: http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf

Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel. 2006. World map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meterologische Zeitschrift, 15: 259–263. http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/

Melillo, J. M., T. C. Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, eds. 2014. Climate change impacts in the United States: the Third National Climate Assessment. US Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. Download page for assessment and related materials: https://www.globalchange.gov/nca3-downloads-materials

Retallack, G. J. 2007. Cenozoic paleoclimate on land in North America. Journal of Geology, 115: 271–294. http://blogs.uoregon.edu/gregr/files/2013/07/cenozoicnorthamerica-qmt02r.pdf

Rosenzweig, C., A. Iglesius, X. B. Yang, P.R. Epstein, and E. Chivian. 2001. Climate change and extreme weather events—implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests. Global Change and Human Health, 2(2): 90–104. NASA Publications Paper 24. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/nasapub/24

Ruddiman, W. F. 2014. Earth’s climate: Past and future, 3rd edition. W. H. Freeman, New York, 445 pp.

Websites

Additional resources from the Paleontological Research Institution

Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science: Why talk about climate change?: https://earthathome.org/de/talk-about-climate/

Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science: What is climate?: https://earthathome.org/de/what-is-climate/

Digital Encyclopedia of Earth Science: Evidence for and causes of recent climate change: https://earthathome.org/de/recent-climate-change/

[email protected]: Quick guides & FAQ: Climate and Energy: https://earthathome.org/quick-faqs/#climate

Museum of the Earth online exhibit: Changing Climate, Our Future, Our Choice: https://www.museumoftheearth.org/changing-climate/

PRI Climate Change and Energy Education: https://www.priweb.org/learn-and-teach/climate-change-and-energy

Playlists on PRI's YouTube channel:

Other websites

Carbon cycle greenhouse gases (NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory, Earth System Research Laboratories): https://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/ (Data and visualizations.)

Climate Change (National Park Service): https://www.nps.gov/subjects/climatechange/climatescience.htm

Climate Change Indicators in the United States (EPA): https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators

Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN): https://cleanet.org/ (A rich collection of resources for educators.)

El Niño & La Niña (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, NOAA): https://www.climate.gov/enso

Envisioning Climate Change Using a Global Climate Model (SERC Earth Exploration Toolkit, authors B. Youngman, M. Chandler, L. Sohl, M. Hafen, T. Ledley, S. Ackerman, and S. Kluge): https://serc.carleton.edu/eet/envisioningclimatechange/index.html

Global climate change: Vital signs of the planet (NASA): https://climate.nasa.gov/ (Information about global climate change, including spectacular satellite images.)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): https://www.ipcc.ch/

Jetstream - An online school for weather (NOAA National Weather Service: https://www.weather.gov/jetstream/

National Climate Assessment 4 (2017), vol. 1: https://science2017.globalchange.gov/

National Climate Assessment 4 (2018), vol. 2: https://nca2018.globalchange.gov/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate.gov: https://www.climate.gov/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Education: https://www.noaa.gov/office-education

National Weather Service (NOAA): https://www.weather.gov/

North America During the Last 150,000 Years (compiled by J. Adams): http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nercNORTHAMERICA.html

Paleoclimatology (NOAA): https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/products/paleoclimatology

The Climate Explorer: https://crt-climate-explorer.nemac.org/

The Paleomap Project (C. R. Scotese): http://www.scotese.com (Maps and information about Earth’s tectonic and climate history.)

US Climate normals quick access (NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information): https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/us-climate-normals/ (Climate information by state.)

US Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification: http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/KG_USA.gif

US Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios (NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information): https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/news/us-regional-climate-trends-and-scenarios

Weatherbase: http://www.weatherbase.com/ (Weather and climate data by country, state, and city.)

Weatherunderground Maps Catalog: https://www.wunderground.com/maps (A variety of types of weather maps, including surface, temperature, moisture, wind, cloud cover, and precipitation.)

Earth hazards

General information

Books, articles, and reports

Gunn, A. M. 2001. The impact of geology on the United States: A reference guide to benefits and hazards. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 296 pp.

Macdougall, J. D. 2011. Why geology matters: Decoding the past, anticipating the future. University of California Press, Berkeley, 285 pp.

Websites

Impact of natural disasters on the Earth (by J. Radke, in Hamline University Graduate School of Education MnSTEP Teaching Activity Collection): https://serc.carleton.edu/sp/mnstep/activities/19789.html

NASA Earth Observatory: Natural Event: https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/topic/natural-event (Monthly satellite images of Earth hazards occurring globally.)

National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS, NOAA): https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/

Derechos

Corfidi, S. F., J. S. Evans, and R. H. Johns. About derechos. NOAA-NWS-NCEP Storm Prediction Center website, last updated January 11, 2022. https://www.spc.noaa.gov/misc/AbtDerechos/derechofacts.htm

Dust storms and haboobs

Dust storms and haboobs (National Weather Service): https://www.weather.gov/safety/wind-dust-storm

Earthquakes

Books, articles, and reports

Stover, C. W., and J. L. Coffman. 1993. Seismicity of the United States, 1568–1989, revised ed. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, 418 pp. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1527

Websites

Earthquake Hazards (USGS): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Education and Public Outreach: https://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/epo

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Seismic Monitor: http://ds.iris.edu/seismon/bigmap/index.phtml

Induced Earthquakes (USGS Earthquake hazards): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/induced-earthquakes

National Earthquake Information Center (USGS NEIC): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/national-earthquake-information-center-neic

Today in Earthquake History (USGS Earthquake Hazards Program): https://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/today/

US Earthquake Monitor (USGS): https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map

Expansive soils

Books, articles, and reports

Rogers, J. D., R. Olshansky, and R. B. Rogers. Damage to foundations from expansive soils. PDF: https://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/expansive_soils/DAMAGE%20TO%20FOUNDATIONS%20FROM%20EXPANSIVE%20SOILS.pdf

Websites

Expansive soil and expansive clay: The hidden force behind basement and foundation problems (H. King, Geology.com): https://geology.com/articles/expansive-soil.shtml

Floods

Books, articles, and reports

Konrad, C. P. 2012. Effects of urban development on floods. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS-076-03. https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs07603/

Websites

Hazards Associated with Flooding (S. Nelson, EENS 3050, Tulane University, last updated 2015): https://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/Natural_Disasters/floodhaz.htm

Inland flooding: A hidden danger of tropical cyclones (NOAA): https://www.noaa.gov/stories/inland-flooding-hidden-danger-of-tropical-cyclones

The 100-year flood (USGS, Water Science School, 2018): https://www.usgs.gov/special-topics/water-science-school/science/100-year-flood

Activities

Teaching Quantitative Concepts in Floods and Flooding (by E. M. Baer in SERC Teaching quantitative skills in the geosciences: Resources for undergraduate students and faculty): https://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/floods.html

Hurricanes (cyclones, typhoons)

Websites

Historical hurricane tracks (NOAA): https://www.coast.noaa.gov/hurricanes/#map=4/32/-80

Hurricanes: Science and Society (University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography): http://www.hurricanescience.org/

Hurricaneville (G. Machos): http://hurricaneville.com/

Inland flooding: A hidden danger of tropical cyclones (NOAA): https://www.noaa.gov/stories/inland-flooding-hidden-danger-of-tropical-cyclones

National Hurricane Center and Central Pacific Hurricane Center (NOAA NWS): https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/

The Weather World 2010 Project: Hurricanes (University of Illinois): http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hurr/home.rxml

Activities

Natural Hazards and Risks: Hurricanes (L. Gilbert, J. Galster, and J. Ramage, in SERC Module on Hurricane Hazards): https://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/hazards/index.html

Landslides

Books, articles, and reports

Burt, C.C. 2014. Worst landslides in U.S. history. WunderBlog Archive, Weather Underground, March 25, 2014. https://www.wunderground.com/blog/weatherhistorian/worst-landslides-in-us-history.html

Highland, L. 2004. Landslide types and processes. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2004-3072, 4 pp. Website and PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3072/fs-2004-3072.html

Highland, L. M., and P. Bobrowsky. 2008. The landslide handbook—a guide to understanding landslides. US Geological Survey Circular 1325, 129 pp. Website and PDF: https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1325/

Websites

Landslide hazards (USGS): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/landslide-hazards

Polar vortex

What is the Polar Vortex? (NASA Ozone Watch): https://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/vortex_NH.html

Radon

Websites

Radon (Environmental Protection Agency): https://www.epa.gov/radon

Radon Fact Sheet (Radon.com, Air Check Inc.): https://www.radon.com/radon_facts/

Sinkholes and karst

Websites

Sinkholes (Water Science School, USGS, 2018): https://www.usgs.gov/special-topics/water-science-school/science/sinkholes

Activities

Karst formation (City of Austin Youth Education resources): https://www.austintexas.gov/sites/default/files/files/Watershed/youth_education/karst_lesson_high_school.pdf

Tornadoes

Books, articles, and reports

Gagan, J. P., A. Gerard, and J. Gordon. 2010. A historical and statistical comparison of "Tornado Alley" to "Dixie Alley." National Weather Digest, 34(2): 146–155. PDF: http://nwafiles.nwas.org/digest/papers/2010/Vol34No2/Pg145-Gagan-etal.pdf

Websites

Severe weather 101: Tornado basics (NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory): https://www.nssl.noaa.gov/education/svrwx101/tornadoes/

Tornado Project online: http://www.tornadoproject.com/

Tornado safety (NOAA NWS): https://www.weather.gov/safety/tornado

Activities

Investigating speed and acceleration using tornado tubes (by K. Serratore, in Hamline University Graduate School of Education MnSTEP Teaching Activity Collection): https://serc.carleton.edu/sp/mnstep/activities/27202.html

Volcanoes

Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History): https://volcano.si.edu/

Volcanoes of Canada and USA (mainland): https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/north-america.html

Volcano Hazards (USGS): https://www.usgs.gov/programs/VHP